Bid to Erase Arrest Records of Civil Rights Activists Considered By Courts: The arrest records of Claudette Colvin, Rosa Parks and Martin Luther King Jr. are being considered for expungement by U.S. courts.

As Claudette Colvin, a civil rights pioneer, aims to have her records erased from her role in the civil rights movement, similar considerations have arisen regarding the clearance of the arrest records of Martin Luther King Jr. and Rosa Parks. The convictions of Parks and King are still upheld in Montgomery, Ala.

At the age of 15, Colvin refused to give up her seat to a white person in which she was forcibly removed by police officers, arrested and put on unspecified probation. Nine months following this occurrence, Parks, a black seamstress and activist, refused to give up her seat to a white person in which she was arrested and fined $10. Parks refused to pay the $10 fine she had been given. Likewise, King’s role in leading the subsequent Montgomery Bus Boycott led to a conviction and hefty $500 fine after courts ruled that he trespassed a law banning boycotts in 1956. 

“Montgomery County Circuit Clerk Gina Ishman said expunging court documents removes convictions from defendants’ record but generally does not result in the destruction of documents, such as the historical police and court records involving people like Colvin, King and Parks,” The Detroit News stated. Similarly, Montgomery County District Attorney Daryl Bailey, the chief prosecutor in Montgomery, expressed his support towards the expungement of the arrest records of King and Parks. However, Bailey explained the need to attain specifics of these arrests prior to responding in court. 

In the 1950s and ‘60s, large quantities of people faced arrest across the South throughout the civil rights demonstrations. After the city of Birmingham offered pardons to people who endured arrest during these demonstrations in 1963, many former protesters expressed that they viewed their arrest records as a badge of honor towards civil rights. Hence, many people refused to receive the pardon offered by the city of Birmingham. 

Colvin explained that the conviction had never distressed her, but her family was concerned because she had never been given any notice stating that her probation concluded. According to Colvin, the worst part of the ordeal was losing friends from high school due to her act of resistance. “They didn’t want to be around me,” Colvin shared. 

As Colvin seeks to have her arrest records wiped away, she notes the symbolic nature of this decision as she aims to honor the justice that so many Black people fought and continue to fight for within the United States. 

“My mindset was on freedom,” Colvin stated as she concluded filling out the expungement request. 

Sources: The Detroit News

Europe Returns Numerous Stolen Artifacts to Africa: European institutions reckon with colonial past and return stolen artifacts to Africa.

On the week of Oct. 27, multiple European institutions officially returned looted African art. Jesus College of Cambridge became the first institution in the United Kingdom to return one of the Benin Bronzes, famous bronze sculptures from the Kingdom of Benin, which historically was located in modern-day Nigeria. The University of Aberdeen quickly followed suit. The Benin Bronzes are viewed as some of the most culturally significant artifacts from West Africa, so their ownership has been a highly contested question. A few days later, the Quai Branly Museum also returned 26 unique pieces; however, these 29 pieces are not even close to the 5,000 works Nigeria has requested be returned to them.

Other museums have agreed to return their pieces as well; Germany said that they will begin returning looted artifacts next year. However, there are still many museums who have not publicly declared that they will return artifacts to their country of origin, including the British Museum in London, which has a massive collection of works from all over the world. Many of these artifacts were acquired through colonial conquests. The British Museum has announced their openness to displaying the pieces they currently own in Nigeria, but they have remained silent on the prospect of transferring ownership.

France especially has been a loud voice in Europe that artifacts be returned. French President Emmanuel Macron said in 2017 that it was unacceptable that France should continue to claim ownership of so many looted African pieces. In 2018, he commissioned a report that recommended that French museums return works if they are requested to do so.

Just because a museum has transferred ownership of a piece does not mean that the artifact will be permanently housed by its new owners. Plenty of museums lend their pieces out to be displayed elsewhere in the world. Anyone who has visited a museum might remember seeing advertisements for a special gallery or exhibition; sometimes, these traveling exhibitions cost extra to see. Despite this, even though a piece might travel and be shown all around the world, many have argued that it still matters who has ownership of the piece. As many view ownership as a form of power, this transfer of looted artifacts symbolized an effort on the part of many European institutions to reckon with their colonial history.

This move does not erase the history that has led to this point. However, now that some institutions and governments have been public and vocal about their intentions to give these looted artifacts back to their countries of origin, many have wondered if this may spark a chain reaction wherein beautiful works of art can be a source of pride for their country and a source of beauty for people everywhere.

Sources: NBC, Reuters

SGA’s Newest Proposal Aims to Provide Grant for Several Student Leader Groups: SGA pursues grant for student leaders involved in MAAC and Student Chaplain Program.

The Multicultural Awareness Advisory Board (MAAC) and the Student Chaplain Program consist of student leaders who provide resources and support to Eastern University’s student body. In recognition of the hefty workload and contributions made by both MAAC and the Student Chaplain Program, the Student Government Association (SGA) has established a proposal advocating for the implementation of a grant. This grant would act as a means of compensating students who serve within these organizations. 

SGA has noted that both MAAC and the Student Chaplain Program are not standard clubs on Eastern’s campus, as they provide in-depth services and resources to the student body at large. “The MAAC board helps create and foster dynamic, innovative and diverse programming for the education of the student body,” SGA explained. Throughout each semester, the MAAC board has hosted and continues to host a variety of speakers and events, such as dinner and discussion events.

The Student Chaplain Program serves as emotional and spiritual support for Eastern’s students. “The Student Chaplain Program’s purpose is to be an in-residence emotional support, prayer, and community partner to residential students; ultimately they are required to live on campus and are assigned to every residence hall,” SGA stated. 

As the Students Activities Board (SAB) and the SGA Executive Board are recipients of a grant for their work in the community, SGA have used this reality to emphasize how MAAC and the Student Chaplain Program do not receive similar benefits despite also making substantial contributions to Eastern. 

The objective of this proposal declares: “We seek to advocate for student body advocates at Eastern University to receive a nominal and tangible grant for their work,” SGA shared. Therefore, SGA has recommended the implementation of grants in addressing the financial needs of MAAC and the Student Chaplain.

Regarding MAAC, SGA has proposed that the president receives $500 annually and other leadership members receive $250 annually. Regarding the Student Chaplain Program, SGA has proposed that the president receives $500 annually, other leadership members receive $250 annually and each chaplain receives basic housing rates. Overall, this proposal cost roughly $3,000 to $3,500 in yearly grants for Eastern.  It is important to note that “Since this proposal involves other groups, it does have a few stages left before it is submitted,” SGA stated. 

The enactment of proposals goes through several processes. First, the proposal is initially created, presented to the SGA senate for approval and finalized. Next, Dr. Jackie Irving is sent the proposal which is then sent to the Leadership Team. Finally, the Leadership Team discusses the proposal in which one of three options normally takes place: the proposal is approved, the proposal is denied or the proposal is sent to the Board of Trustees for further review. 

According to SGA, the inspiration behind this proposal stems from the recognition of the immense contributions made by both MAAC and the Student Chaplain Program to the larger Eastern community. “Both groups put in countless hours of training, work and dedication to their jobs and are essential components of the Eastern University community,” SGA explained.

Eastern’s Anticipated Football Team & Sexual Assault Concerns: A deeper dive into the selection process of Eastern’s future football coach, Title IX procedures, and student concerns.

According to a 2018 study, the amount of reported sexual assaults with 17- to 24-year-old victims during football games increased by 41 percent on home game days and by 15 percent on away game days. Given that these studies only recorded the number of reported sexual assaults, research indicates that nearly 80 percent of sexual assaults remain unreported. However, the universities used for this study contain a larger population in comparison to Eastern and consist of different regulations and values. 

As Eastern University prepares to welcome its first football team in the upcoming years, such studies and other factors have raised concerns amongst Eastern students regarding the preventative measures and resources available. Dr. Jackie Irving, Vice Provost for Student Development and Title IX Coordinator; Eric McNelley, Athletic Director; and the Student Government Association (SGA) provided insights on Eastern University’s anticipated football team and concerns related to sexual assault. 

Student leaders within the Student Government Association have acknowledged the statistics linking football game days and increased sexual assault cases. “There needs to be a clear institutional stance on sexual assault that holds perpetrators accountable, doesn’t victim blame,” SGA explained. 

Eric McNelley shared how the entire athletic department, including the athletic staff, graduate assistants, and student athletes, complete Title IX training and standard intervention annually. McNelley has a personal understanding of the impacts of sexual violence and is very passionate about this issue. Speaking of the anticipated football team, “My goal is that I do not want anyone to feel fear. We are so driven to get this right for the community,” McNelley shared. 

In addition to this, McNelley discussed the selection process for aspiring Eastern football coaches. First, McNelley initially evaluates the applicants from a football coaching perspective. In other words, the applicants are assessed on whether they have the skills and knowledge to be a successful football coach. 

 Second, the applicants that pass this evaluation participate in a second round of interviews with panelists such as Dr. Jackie Irving, Ashlee Williams, two student representatives, and several others. “We had 13 people represented on the panel – none of which have any idea of what it takes to coach a sport,” McNelley explained. In having so many diverse voices on the decision-making panel, McNelley shared his aim, as well as the entire committee’s aim, to find an aspiring football coach that will enhance the entire Eastern community. 

“All of [the applicants] talked about character and the care for the community, so I can’t wait until students get to talk to whoever they choose because I think they’ve done a really good job of vetting the coaches,” Dr. Irving emphasized. 

As student enrollment is predicted to increase, Dr. Irving explained that Eastern will be hiring a Title IX deputy, as well as other services for students. “When you increase enrollment, you have to increase services,” Dr. Irving stated. The “It’s On Us” campaign will also continue to promote educational resources and opportunities to nurture an environment of consent. 

Dr. Jackie Irving, Eric McNelley, and Student Government Association are available to address any concerns or questions that students may contain. “Anyone that would like to come speak to me, my door is always open,” McNelley explained. Students who would prefer to talk to a female athletic director regarding their concerns are always welcome to reach out to Heidi Birtwistle. “The goal is to make sure that we are doing what we need to do to support students academically, socially, emotionally, developmentally, and spiritually,” Dr. Irving stated. 

Sources: American Economic Journal, Brennan Center for Justice

The Art of Interfaith Dialogue: A student reflects on her time in the Chamberlain Interfaith Dialogue.

According to Krister Stendahl, a Swedish theologian and New Testament scholar, three rules are essential to interreligious understanding: first, when one aims to learn about another religion, they should ask the adherents of that religion rather than its enemies; second, one should not compare their religion’s best to another religion’s worst; lastly, it is important to leave room for holy envy. The art of interfaith dialogue is rooted in both Stendahl’s three rules of religious understanding and sichah – the Hebrew word for “conversation.” Sichah is an opportunity to engage in meaningful dialogues that extends beyond small talk with another person. 

In taking part in the Chamberlain Interfaith Fellowship, Stendhal’s rules of interreligious understanding were enacted through sichah and relationships developed alongside students from the Jewish faith. Under the guidance of Dr. Modica and Rachel Happel, four Jewish students from Temple Beth Shalom and four Christian students from Eastern University discussed our unique faith backgrounds through the lens of justice, current events, and beyond.

Amongst the wonderful students from Temple Beth Shalom, I had the privilege of being paired with Evie to meet bimonthly. Sitting (virtually) alongside Evie, a former stranger and current friend, we utilized Krister Stendahl’s rules of interreligious understanding to delve into discussions about our different faith backgrounds. 

The art of interfaith extends into real-life importance of religious literacy within career paths. Business majors benefit from knowing how people of varying religious backgrounds lend and borrow money; nursing majors must know how people of varying religious backgrounds treat and view illness and death; youth ministry and biblical studies majors must be mindful of how to commit to sermons and dialogues that are not discriminatory towards other religious backgrounds; exercise science majors must be aware of the dietary restrictions and religious fasting periods of their athletes of varying religious backgrounds; and education majors must be cognizant of the different pedagogies that religious teachings utilize and the major holidays that students celebrate. 

Regardless of how appetizing the notion may appear, I do not believe that different religions worship the same God. However, I do believe that there is a common denominator among the major world religions: loving others. I have found celebration in that, despite many differences, the world religions unite on a message of deep love for others. I certainly experienced this neighborly love in my engagement with interfaith immersion experiences and hope that others engage with the art of interfaith dialogue.

Podcast of the Month: A look at Chris Gethard’s podcast, “Beautiful stories from Anonymous people.”

The podcast “Beautiful Stories from Anonymous People” begins each episode with their staple catchphrase: “One phone call, one hour, no names, no holds barred.” Hosted by comedian Chris Gethard, “Beautiful Stories from Anonymous People” is a podcast that allows listeners from all walks of life to find authenticity and community. On a weekly basis, Gethard randomly enters the studio and tweets a phone number for people to call. The randomly selected caller is at the center of the conversation and can discuss whatever they choose. The show has no established schedule, no queue, and hardly any vetting, for producers simply ensure that the phone connection is clear. Each episode is barely edited aside from bleeping out identifying details about the caller. This allows for listeners to experience another person’s story entirely in their own words. 

Among the many participants, the podcast includes an exhausted customer service employee, a mother awaiting life or death test outcomes for her daughter, a sex toy designer, a former monk, a young woman about to turn herself in to the police for a serious crime, and over 100 others. The episodes range from deep and heavy to humorous and light-hearted, providing a wide range of emotions for the listener to experience. Gethard’s laid-back yet interested approach appears to make it easier for the participant to open up and veer away from surface-level conversation. This approach makes the listener feel as though they are overhearing a conversation between two friends rather than two strangers. 

In one particular episode, the caller is a person who is deaf and uses a sign language translator to communicate with Gethard. The caller shared how he engaged with podcasts, a typically audio-based experience, by reading the transcripts. Gethard noted this as being one of his most memorable episodes, as he truly believed the conversation embodied a glimpse of how it feels to walk in another’s shoes. 

To sit in the space of a stranger and listen to the ugly, beautiful, and average parts of their story is a truly thought-provoking experience. I recommend “Beautiful Stories from Anonymous People” because it echoes the value of every person and their story. . In addition to this, the active listening skills that Gethard demonstrates is another reason why this podcast is so valuable. He adds his own insights without decentering the caller and actively tries to understand what they are saying as best as he can. The caller, regardless of how absurd the conversation becomes, is talked to as an equal whose words contain purpose and meaning. As shared by the comedian himself, “I do my best to help and offer thoughts and advice, but I’m no therapist. I’m just a guy who is very willing to listen and who hopes that things turn out ok,” Gethard explained. 


Eastern Community Discusses 2022-2027 Strategic Plan: Planning for Eastern University’s 2022-2027 Strategic Plan calls for community involvement

With aims of enhancing Eastern University, Eastern leadership members have begun to establish drafts of a strategic plan that echoes faith, reason, and justice. As the construction of Eastern University’s 2022-2027 Strategic Plan has gone underway, the Office of Institutional Planning and Effectiveness hosted virtual focus groups. 

The purpose of the focus groups was to be transparent and attain feedback on the preliminary draft of priorities that will direct the strategic plan. Major focus areas and overarching goals were discussed in order to receive feedback from the larger Eastern community. As this session focused on the preliminary draft of goals for Eastern, the feedback from this session, along with future sessions, will further guide the ensuing drafts of the 2022-2027 strategic plan.

On Oct. 13th and Oct. 15th, graduate and undergraduate students met online to learn about and provide feedback on the first draft of the strategic plan. In addition to students, staff members, faculty, alumni, and deans also attended focus groups throughout the week to evolve the conversation regarding the preliminary draft. 

The Office of Institutional Planning and Effectiveness brought to the community draft language in these areas: living out identity; excellence and innovation; strategic funding; diversity, equity, and belonging; and valuing employees. Eastern community members shared their unique and similar experiences, asked questions, and provided critiques. 

Utilizing the feedback received from the focus groups, the leadership team plans to continue drafting the strategic plan. According to Dr. Christine Mahan, Vice President for Institutional Planning and Effectiveness, the second draft will be brought to the community in January for further discussion. “The more we communicate about it, the more useful it is,” Dr. Mahan explained.

As community involvement is a prioritized aspect of this procedure, Eastern community members are encouraged to get involved with the planning process. Community members with questions or comments are always welcome to reach out to the members of the Office of Institutional Planning and Effectiveness. “We all look at things through a different lens, we don’t want to put together a plan for the university that is in a vacuum,” Dr. Mahan stated.

Former Pennsylvania Institution Transformed into Haunted House Attraction: The dark past of Pennhurst leads to controversy after the former institution is transformed into a haunted house

Situated approximately 18.7 miles away from Eastern University, the remains of the Pennhurst State School and Hospital stand as a reminder of maltreatment and captivity. 

Established in 1908, Pennhurst State School and Hospital, originally known as the Eastern Pennsylvania State Institution for the Feeble-Minded and Epileptic, officially opened and admitted residents. In addition to many other institutions in the United States, Pennhurst aimed to segregate individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities from the rest of society. For over eight decades, a total of roughly 10,600 children and adults lived the vast majority of their lives, if not their entire lives, within the perpetual quarantine of Pennhurst. 

Although Pennhurst was established to care for people with seizure disorders and intellectual disabilities, the institution experienced overcrowding as many people without these conditions were admitted. Pennhurst also admitted people without parental figures, immigrants, people with mental illnesses, people who were blind or deaf, and people labelled as “delinquents.” Unclaimed by society, the individuals admitted to Pennhurst had no one advocating for their well-being or freedom. Upon entering Pennhurst, residents lost their right to leave and their ability to exercise the most basic of human rights. “Medical experimentation, cruel punishments, and the constant threats to physical and psychological well-being were part of the institutional culture,” The Philadelphia Inquirer explained. 

In 1968, Bill Baldini, a reporter, travelled to Chester County after receiving a tip surrounding the conditions at Pennhurst. Due to tight restrictions on who was allowed into Pennhurst, no reporter prior to Baldini had received such open access to the institution. Baldini was met with emaciated residents who were tied to their beds, locked in cages, and placed into solitary confinement. Immediately, the young reporter left the institution and returned with his camera crew. “And we start shooting, and my crew was mortified. I mean, I had trouble keeping them on the job, because they were literally getting sick from what they saw,” Baldini stated. 

“Suffer the Little Children,” — the title stemming from the Gospel of Mark — was a five-part series produced by Baldini and his crew regarding Pennhurst. The film depicted the neglectful and abusive circumstances that gave insights into how governmental systems can grow conditioned to the dehumanization of people. Although the release of the documentary ensued several advancements, such as the creation of early community support, the circumstances at Pennhurst continued to decline. 

On May 30, 1974, Halderman v. Pennhurst State School and Hospital was filed on behalf of former and present Pennhurst residents against the institution, its superintendents, and state officials responsible for Pennhurst’s operation. Pennhurst was officially closed as an institution in 1987, leaving a vacant building and traumatized former residents. 

In 2008, real-estate investor Richard Chakejian partnered with Randy Bates, who maintains a haunted-house business, in transforming Pennhurst State School and Hospital into Pennhurst Asylum, a Halloween attraction. Thousands of guests enter the former institution, yearning to be scared by actors dressed as bloodied patients and doctors. “PennHurst, the legendary haunted hospital complex, has opened its doors after 25 years and is accepting new patients!” the Pennhurst Asylum Haunted House website states. 

Pennhurst’s transformation into a haunted house has stirred controversy throughout the nation. “Haunted asylum attractions make people with mental illness into grotesque caricatures and perpetuate the spurious linkage between mental disorders and violence,” The Philadelphia Inquirer stated. Meanwhile, others have argued, “The public that comes through here know the distinction and the difference between making fun of something and a Halloween event,” NPR explained. 

The ethics of transforming a space of human suffering into an entertainment attraction has led to questions regarding how society views and treats those with disabilities. As the discrimination of individuals with disabilities and mental illnesses unjustly persists, activists ask haunted house attendees to think critically about what is being mimicked in the attraction and the history of the haunted houses’s location. 

Sources: The Philadelphia Inquirer, NPR, Pennhurst Asylum Haunted House, Antiquity Echoes, The Encyclopedia of Greater Philadelphia

Leaders of Europe’s Mediterranean pledge climate cooperation: Nine European countries on the Mediterranean address climate change and make promises of cooperation.

Summer heat waves caused forest fires to scorch Europe’s Mediterranean region, causing extensive damage to Greece. Greece experienced a record-breaking heat wave within the country, causing forest fires that extended firefighter’s resources to their ultimate capacity. The island of Evia and southern parts of Greece were immensely damaged by the fire, as 1,000 sq kilometres of Greek forest land were destroyed. The Prime Minister of Greece, Kyriakos Mitsotakis blamed the fires on the increase of global temperatures. 

Following massive wildfires that tormented sections of southern Europe, leaders of Europe’s Mediterranean countries held a summit in Athens to discuss climate change. This summit took place on September 17th at the Stavros Niarchos Foundation Cultural Center. Attendees included President Emmanuel Macron of France, Prime Minister Mario Draghi of Italy, Prime Minister Pedro Sanchez of Spain, in addition to leaders and senior representatives from Greece, Cyprus, Slovenia, Croatia, Malta, and Portugal. “Participants reaffirmed their commitment to goals set out under the Paris accord, the worldwide global climate pact, called for closer integration of climate change policies across Europe and further cooperation within the EU’s trans-national disaster response mechanism,” Euronews stated. 

Leaders pledged to broaden the joint effort of climate cooperation in opposition to environment modification. Specifically, European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen affirmed the importance of taking action immediately due to the damaging impact that climate change is already having on the Mediterranean region. According to a joint statement, the leaders held a “strong conviction that urgent and ambitious global action (is needed) at national, regional and local levels,” Radio France Internationale explained. 

The summit also included discussions on the crisis in Afghanistan and immigration policies, as Greece, Malta, Italy, and Spain contain major routes for people to enter without documentation. Greece has intentions of enacting stricter regulations related to immigration by expanding border security and increasing land and sea patrols. 

Sources: Euronews, Radio France Internationale Euronews

SGA Advocates for Fair Wages At Eastern: SGA proposal aims to raise the wages of Eastern University’s essential personnel

National concern surrounding what constitutes a fair wage is an alarming issue across the United States. As the Student Government Association (SGA) consists of leaders advocating for change, they have acquired an in-depth understanding of how Eastern University operates. Due to this, it became clear to SGA members that there is a need to address the treatment of every member of the Eastern community. Eastern University’s SGA has provided a closer examination into this reality. 

Across the United States, the poverty line is identified as being $19,320 at the 50th percentile for a single person. “Some of the lowest-paid essential staff members, who are employed directly by Eastern, are paid approximately $12.60 an hour,” SGA shared. If these essential staff members worked a 40 hour week or full-time, their annual income is roughly $26,390. Following taxes, their annual income is roughly $22,520. Therefore, the take-home pay of these essential staff members is a measly $3,200 above the United States poverty line. According to the publicly available 990 forms that all nonprofits have to submit to the IRS, Eastern University’s revenue for 2019 was $80,183,384. In a social media statement written by Xeyah Martin, the SGA President, a call to action was put forth over the wages given to Eastern University’s essential service personnel. “Some of the challenges we will present include: An Eastern minimum wage of at least $15 an hour for staff. We have essential service personnel living way too close to the poverty line while working at an institution that garners more than $80 million per year and pays its executives in the hundreds of thousands,” Martin declared. 

SGA plans to actively advocate for increased incomes of essential staff members by starting with a security proposal to strengthen how student spaces are protected and secured. “The most significant way we protect students is with personnel,” SGA explained. National hiring shortages faced by U.S. businesses and institutions as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic have also impacted Eastern University. In addition to this, Eastern has faced hiring shortages prior to the pandemic which, some have theorized, is a result of the low wages being offered by the institution to potential employees. Currently, Eastern has three full-time openings and one part-time opening for essential staff employees. While Eastern has six public safety officers and one director, Cabrini’s public safety supervising team alone consists of seven people. In order to strengthen how student spaces are protected and secured, the security proposal involves raising wages to $15 an hour to help with the retaining and hiring of such vital positions. Following this, SGA plans on formally introducing an additional proposal in favor of increasing the minimum wage of all staff to at least $15 per hour. 

“We would like to reinforce the idea that all of us are more than just ‘students’ of this University. We are paying customers and stakeholders. We should be allowed to determine where our money is being spent and how,” SGA emphasized. 

Students with questions, ideas, or opportunities for partnership are welcome to reach out at Additionally, students can keep up with SGA and their proposals through In their Instagram bio, SGA’s account lists all of their current proposals. “We are here to listen to and serve our student body and I can definitively say this is a genuine conviction our Executive Board and all of our Senate members hold,” Martin stated.

Sources: Pennsylvania Department of Community and Economic Development, Economic Policy Institute 

“Essential personnel are the employees that students are interacting with and being cared for by the most. The essential personnel are the ones actively taking care of students and day-to-day operations, and it’s time we take care of them” Martin stated.