The Legacy of a Lifelong Friendship: The Chamberlain Interfaith Fellowship Dinner.

The Chamberlain Interfaith Fellowship (CIF) is rooted in a story of lifelong friendship between two young boys living in Newton, Mass. David Feldman and Dr. Ted J. Chamberlain were raised four houses away from each other and spent thousands of hours together in childhood. “Our friendship continued throughout adulthood; our wives are friendly, our children are friendly, their spouses are friendly, our grandchildren are friendly,” Feldman said. 

Their friendship stretched beyond time as well as religious differences, for both Feldman and Chamberlain maintained differing faith backgrounds throughout their friendship. Feldman was raised in a Reformed Jewish tradition; meanwhile, Chamberlain was raised in the Baptist sect of Protestantism. 

Despite these differences, both men maintained a wide worldview and held a deep respect for other religious traditions in the midst of adhering to their own. In addition to this, Chamberlain served 28 years as Eastern University’s Dean of Students and Vice President of Student Development. During this time at Eastern, Chamberlain was well-known for his deep faith and how he used his faith to forge meaningful relationships with people from all walks of life. After Chamberlain’s untimely passing in 2010, many of the people who knew Chamberlain commemorated the legacy he left behind. 

In 2014, as a result of the wisdom of David and Sydney Feldman, faith and academic leaders from Eastern University and Temple Beth Shalom in Needham, Mass. were brought together to contemplate the prospect of establishing a fellowship inspired by Chamberlain’s legacy. Thus, this eventually resulted in the formal establishment of the Chamberlain Interfaith Fellowship.

Annually, four Eastern students and four students from Temple Beth Shalom formulate a cohort that receives the opportunity to “learn about each other’s faith tradition; reflect upon commonalities and differences in the spirit of emerging friendship; grow spiritually, emotionally and intellectually; and engage in a social justice project for the common good of society and the world,” Chamberlain Award & Interfaith Fellowship says. 

On April 8, the CIF reception transpired in Eastern’s Baird Library. Members of Eastern University and members of Temple Beth Shalom gathered together as a unified community. Dr. Modica opened the reception with opening remarks and warm welcomes to all. President Ron Matthews provided a thoughtful reflection that correlated the importance of interfaith dialogue, relating this to current events across the globe. Before attendees received their Sodexo-catered meal, Rachel Happel, Temple Beth Shalom’s Senior Director of Learning and Engagement, and Jaclyn Favaroso, CIF Alumni Association member, provided both a Jewish and Christian prayer. 

Unbeknownst to many attendees, David Feldman would be receiving an award upon being named a Northwestern Mutual Insurance Community Service Award recipient. The provider of this award, Northwestern Mutual, is a financial service company that awards $310,000 in grants to nonprofits nationally through its Community Service Awards. As the visionary of CIF, Feldman’s commitment to “loving thy neighbor” has garnered well-deserved appreciation. Luisa Wilsman, Vice President of Advancement, and Eastern University President Ron Matthews presented Feldman with a $15,000 grant which will help fund the continuation and progression of CIF. 

Feldman accepted this award with gracious words of commemoration towards his friendship with Dr. Chamberlain and celebration towards the future dialogues and relationships that will be established thanks to CIF. 

In addition to this award, the reception held a special presentation in order to celebrate the seventh year of CIF. A miniature version of Timothy Schmaltz’s “Christ Washing Peter’s Feet” sculpture was presented to Liria Chamberlain, Dr. Ted Chamberlain’s wife. Dr. Bettie Ann Brigham, friend and colleague of the Chamberlain family, and Dr. Modica presented Liria Chamberlain with a miniature sculpture with a plaque that stated: “Deep Friendships, Shared Learning, ‘Holy Envy.’” 

As the CIF reception came to a close, new CIF cohort members meshed with former cohort members. The Chamberlain Interfaith Fellowship’s origins are centered on the lifelong friendship between two people, and this friendship will continue onwards through the lives of current and future CIF cohorts.

Eastern Alumni, Brisa De Angulo, Goes to Inter-American Court of Human Rights: The IACtHR hears the case of Brisa De Angulo Losada v. Bolivia, to further jurisprudence surrounding sexual violence against children and adolescents.

Trigger warning: This article mentions sexual abuse and sexual violence.

Founder of A Breeze of Hope foundation and 2007 graduate of Eastern University, Brisa De Angulo’s has rooted her career in activism and justice for survivors of sexual violence. De Angulo is the CEO and founder of A Breeze of Hope, a nonprofit organization that provides legal, social, and emotional support to people who have experienced sexual violence in Bolivia. A Breeze of Hope aims to “Restore the lives of those who’ve suffered childhood sexual violence by providing them free, holistic support; prevent sexual violence through transdisciplinary prevention strategies​ and promote healthy, comprehensive childhood development​,” A Breeze of Hope stated. 

As a child, De Angulo was involved with her community and flourished in extracurriculars and academics. However, this changed after De Angulo experienced sexual violence within her own family. When De Angulo was 15 years old, her 27 year old cousin sexually abused her repeatedly for eight months. He threatened De Angulo in order to maintain her silence. De Angulo grew detached from her loved ones and her extracurriculars and academics began to flounder rapidly. She developed an eating disorder, dropped out of school and made several attempts on her life. 

After enduring eight months of sexual violence, De Angulo confided in her parents. Together, they sought aid from the police and took the case to court. However, they struggled to find a lawyer willing to defend her case and community members fought to quiet her. Her family’s home was set on fire, threats were made on her life and people tried to run her over with their cars. De Angulo endured three trials in Bolivia, but her cousin has never had to face any repercussions. 

On Mar. 29 and Mar. 30, the Inter-American Court of Human Rights (IACtHR) heard the case Brisa De Angulo Losada v. Bolivia. “This is the first time that the IACtHR will hear a case pertaining to the human rights violations of an adolescent victim of incest,” Equality Now stated. 

De Angulo and her legal team are demanding that the government responds more effectively to sexual violence through law and procedure reform, operationalization of justice, development of up-to-date and high quality professionals and services and prevention strategies. Amongst many other goals, the team is focusing on eliminating the statue of limitations on cases pertaining to sexually based offenses. Currently, De Angulo is awaiting the results; however, she continues to raise awareness and further monetary support towards A Breeze of Hope. 

You can learn more about Brisa De Angulo Losada v. Bolivia at www.abreezeofhope.org/

“Despite the threats on my life, I will not hide my name, I will not hide my face, I will not carry the shame that belongs to my aggressor,” De Anglo stated during the trial. 

Source: CNN, A Breeze of Hope, Equality Now

Mary Johnson

When asked whether I am prepared to graduate, I simply explain that I have 300 unopened emails and several assignments that currently amount to blank google documents. As I hope and pray that no more emails flood my inbox and that words will magically fill my google document, I do find that I will miss this phase of life despite also feeling ready to move onward. 

Beyond the endless quantities of emails and assignments, I have an immense gratitude towards the people I have met through clubs and experiences that I’ve been a part of. As I reflect on my time at Eastern, I have had the opportunity to be a part of the Youth Against Complacency and Homelessness Today (YACHT) club, Chamberlain Interfaith Fellowship, A Breeze of Hope ambassadors and the Waltonian. Each club has encompassed a community of people who have invested their time and love into one another, and for that I am thankful. 

In addition to Eastern’s clubs, as a Special Education major, the vast majority of my final semester has been spent student-teaching in a 6th grade intensive mathematics class. Having received special education services for a learning disability in mathematics, I found this experience to be a unique and fascinating parallel between my former experience as a struggling student in math class and my students’ experience in math class. 

Although I am unsure whether I will ever enter the traditional route associated with the education major of becoming a full-time teacher or school personnel, I do hope to work in an area associated with education, specifically prison education. Therefore, following graduation, I will be working for the Prison Education Program here at Eastern (that’s right, I won’t be gone for too long!). Specifically, I will be a Teaching Assistant to several Eastern University professors. 

Before I open the 300 unread emails and fill in my blank google document, I want to conclude with a quote that I hope to live by within my future: “If you have come here to help me, you are wasting your time. But if you have come because your liberation is bound up with mine, then let us work together,” as stated by Lillan Watson.

 

March 15 Becomes International Day to Combat Islamophobia: The United Nations General Assembly has approved resolution aimed at combatting religious discrimination.

The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) has approved a resolution that sets March 15 as the International Day to Combat Islamophobia. Pakistan’s Prime Minister Imran Khan has welcomed this approval. 

The resolution has been adopted by the consensus of the 193-member world body and co-sponsored by 55 prominently Muslim countries. As it emphasizes the right to freedom of religion and belief, it has recalled a 1981 resolution that called for “the elimination of all forms of intolerance and of discrimination based on religious or belief,” Aljazeera stated. 

The Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) played a major role in introducing the resolution. OIC wanted to specifically honor March 15. March 15 marks the date on which an armed individual entered two mosques in Christchurch, New Zealand, resulting in 51 deaths and 40 injuries. Hence, the International Day to Combat Islamophobia also honors the lives of those taken by the mosque shooting in addition to raising awareness towards religion-based discrimination. 

The resolution shows concern towards the increase of discrimination, tolerance, and violence directed at members of religious communities, including cases inspired by Islamophobia, anti-Semitism, and Christianophobia. All countries, UN bodies, international and regional organizations, civil society, the private sector, and faith-based organizations are asked “to organize and support various high-visibility events aimed at effectively increasing awareness of all levels about curbing Islamophobia, and to observe the new International Day to Combat Islamophobia,” Aljazeera shared.

Prime Minister Khan has regularly advocated against the rising Islamophobia in his addresses at a multitude of forums and through letters to predominantly Muslim countries. “Today, the UN has finally recognized the grave challenge confronting the world: of Islamophobia, respect for religious symbols, and practices and of curtailing systematic hate speech and discrimination against Muslims,” Prime Minister Khan tweeted. 

“Next challenge is to ensure implementation of this landmark resolution,” Prime Minister Khan further stated. 

Sources: Aljazeera

Do Russian People Deserve to Suffer?: Russia’s citizens are being punished for the actions of the country.

As economic sanctions have been imposed upon Russia, I aim to better understand the ethics of imposing sanctions and how this will and has affected Russian people. However, I hope to do so without diverting attention away from the destruction and displacement that Ukraine is experiencing. 

Economic sanctions have been a long-standing element of international relations. They are defined as the implementation of commercial and financial penalties in response to a wide array of economic, military, political and social issues. Following the Cold War, sanctions were used more frequently as a way of dealing with serious conflict with another country. Sanctions inflict serious damage on the nations they are imposed upon. This is exemplified by the sanctions imposed on Iraq from 1990 to 2003, noted as causing the worst harm. UNICEF reported that an estimated 500,000 Iraqi children under the age of five died from malnutrition and disease following the imposed economic sanctions. Although these sanctions were meant to undermine dictator Saddam Hussein’s power, they strengthened his control as the government became the main lifeline of goods and income.

After devastation resulting from imposed sanctions in Iraq, various organizations started to investigate alternative responses, specifically responses that did not harm everyday citizens. “Targeted” economic sanctions were introduced as a way of targeting those believed to be morally responsible without also hurting everyday people. “Targeted” economic sanctions may include, for example, freezing the assets of government officials or banning trade on weapons to deter violence. While targeted economic sanctions are not harmless and perhaps unethical, the harm caused is less extensive to the nation’s citizens. 

While exploring the ethics of imposing sanctions, my basis for understanding this complex issue derived from a series of questions: Is it ethical to pursue such sanctions on Russia? Is punishing Russia necessary in diminishing harm despite being unethical? If the implementation of sanctions on Russia is considered unethical, then what are the alternatives to prevent Russia’s invasion? I would like to emphasize that I do not have the answers to these questions, rather I have included details about what is happening and the repercussions they may cause. 

In response to Putin ordering troops to invade eastern Ukraine, the country’s stocks and currency severely declined as the stock market shut down. The European Union, the United Kingdom, the United States and Canada have imposed sanctions that blocked widely-used Russian banks from SWIFT. Russians watched their savings deplete as the Moscow stock exchange eroded. Similar to Iraq, academics theorize that, as Russia’s economy continues to spiral, this allows for Putin to gain more power. Samuel Goldman, George Washington University professor of political science, forewarned, “Even when sanctions succeed in destabilizing the regimes they target, new dictators may come to power under conditions of economic collapse and social disorder.” 

Although a flight ban and visa ban is not formally in place as of now, the fear of this transpiring would be especially horrifying for LGBTQ+ people in Russia. LGBTQ+ people living in Russia have been known to experience widespread homophobic harrassment and discimination. In 2017, hundreds of gay men were taken by security forces and tortured at an unknown detention site. Multiple men were never seen again and are presumed to have been killed. If a flight ban and visa ban is enacted as a form of economic sanction, this could mean dire consequences for the LGBTQ+ people living in Russia seeking refuge from oppressive forces. 

While I have much more research to do surrounding this matter, the conclusion that I have come to thus far is as follows: the sanctions currently enacted on Russia are unethical. These sanctions serve as a breeding ground for further dictatorship of Putin over Russia. However, I am inconclusive regarding whether these sanctions would prevent further harm from Russia on Ukraine. If these sanctions would prevent further harm on Ukraine, would this classify their implementation as unethical yet necessary? 

I would like to reiterate that I do not aim to divert attention away from what is happening in Ukraine. For my philosophy surrounding this article is as follows: Perhaps it is the capacity to stand in the place of our enemy that permits us the freedom and the focus to be a constructive advocate for healing, instead of a perpetual partisan at arms. 

Source: Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, CNN, Aljazeera

Ukrainian Soldiers Find New Recruit in Stray Dog: Rambo was rescued from several Ukraine soldiers and serves alongside them in the trenches.

As Ukraine continues to experience terrorization from Russian forces, a unit of Ukrainian soldiers have demonstrated a moment of kindness amidst the conflict. After a puppy was found terrified and abandoned in an open field in Bakhmut, Ukraine, soldiers adopted him as their new watchdog. Soldiers named the pup “Rambo” after the action film series focusing on a Vietnam veteran’s experience. Upon finding him, the tiny pup was so small that he was often held with one hand. However, he has reportedly been growing each day amongst his new owners.

In a popular video, Ukrainian soldiers were seen carrying and nurturing a puppy. “He is our protector, right Rambo? We felt sorry for him. It was freezing outside. We took him into our post and he stayed with us,” a soldier stated in the video. In addition to the emotional comfort Rambo provides, Rambo also provides security by serving as the watchdog for the soldiers. Soldiers explained that dogs are capable of hearing things that humans are incapable of hearing. 

While Rambo provides security to the unit, he also “provided them with hope and happiness during such a difficult time,” Mirror.co.uk shared. Rambo is among several other dogs that have added an extra level of security and comfort inside the trenches. 

Although Rambo might not be able to provide much physical protection beyond altering the unit of potential danger, his value to the unit is nonetheless invaluable as he preserves morale and keeps spirits up amidst such a terrifying conflict. 

Sources: mirror.co.uk, independent.co.uk

SGA President Xeyah Martin Runs For The 185th District: A look inside Eastern’s Isaiah Martin as a person and an aspiring state representative.

Known for his multiple leadership roles on Eastern University’s campus, Xeyah Martin is in the process of running for state representative in the 185th district of the Pennsylvania General Assembly. The district, located in the Delaware and Philadelphia counties, includes the following areas: Philadelphia International Airport, Simeone Foundation Automotive Museum, Colwyn, Darby Township, Sharon Hill, Ward 26, Ward 36, Ward 40 and Ward 48. “I’m entering this election to lift up my community, elevate my people, and change the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania,” Martin stated.

As a lifelong resident of Philadelphia, Martin spent the early period of his life residing in south Philadelphia. He was raised by working class parents and spent much of his late adolescence caring for his grandmother with quadriplegia. “My grandmother was my everything; she helped raise me. She was truly my best friend,” Martin shared. Martin chose to study at Eastern University in order to be close to his grandmother; however, she unfortunately passed away weeks before Martin graduated high school. 

Martin grew up in South Philadelphia alongside his family. His love of politics blossomed while taking a civics class in high school, and he always maintained a strong connection with his community. After his mother’s car was found with bullets in the sides, Martin and his family moved to southwest Philadelphia in 2005. Martin reminisced on his early years in southwest Philadelphia as people freely walked the streets with trimmed trees outlining the sidewalks. However, as Martin grew older, he noticed southwest Philadelphia gradually declining. “The neighborhood went down and down. People who lived there moved out because they noticed an increase in violence and school systems failing,” Martin explained. 

Martin’s decision to enter the race for state representative is rooted in the people and experiences surrounding his own life. After the loss of his grandmother, Martin struggled to get involved with Eastern. Martin’s passion for civic engagement was reignited by Theresa Noye, the director of the Goode Scholars program. Noye implored Martin and other Goode Scholars to “show the world who we are; to be that bright, shining star and to help uplift other people,” Martin shared. Likewise, Dr. Sharon Gramby-Sobukwe, a professor at Eastern, influenced Martin’s perceptions on politics. Representative Malcolm Kenyatta helped pave the way for Martin’s current and future success through his advocacy and policies. 

In addition to the people that have inspired Martin, first-hand experiences have also shaped his journey. Martin found his car laden with bullet holes due to a shooting in his neighborhood. Although this shooting did not result in any fatalities, Martin considered the potential destruction of human life that could have transpired. “This could have happened when children were outside, when people were getting off of work. This cannot happen anymore,” Martin emphasized. 

If Martin is to be elected as state representative of the 185th district, his plans revolve around three areas: prosperity, security, and progress. “I look at prosperity, security, and progress as a circle: you can’t have one without the other,” Martin expressed. “The first step toward change is allowing those who have been left behind into our collective share of prosperity. This means expanding home ownership opportunities, as these lead to generational wealth and stronger connections.”

Security encompasses the need to change and reform policing laws. For Martin, this includes mandating the presence of social workers in mental health crisis responses. “Walter Wallace was going through a mental health crisis and he was shot and killed multiple times by Philadelphia police officers,” Martin explained. “This should never have happened, period.” With regards to gun laws, Martin shared his concern that in the state of Pennsylvania it is easier to obtain a gun than it is to purchase a car. Xeyah Martin’s hope is to work collectively to build stronger communities safe from the fear of violence.

For Xeyah Martin, progress requires that we turn away from old ways of thinking and dare to dream a new dream. He sees an opportunity in the areas of marijuana, education and the minimum wage. “I want to legalize marijuana for two reasons: to help release non-violent weed-related offenders, and increase education spending,” Martin stated. By using the tax revenue from marijuana, Martin would funnel this profit into educational spending. Additionally, Martin hopes to increase minimum wage to ensure that resources are accessible. “People need to work, but they also have children. They can’t afford to pay for the $500 a week daycare living on minimum wage,” Martin explained.

Although only those living in the 185th district are able to vote for Martin, there are other ways to support his campaign. More information can be found using Martin’s instagram, Martin’s @xeyahtm, and his website can be reached at: https://xeyforpa.com/

As Martin strives to become state representative, he aims to echo the words of Vice President Kamala Harris: “I may be the first, but won’t be the last.”

Book Review: An introduction to Seth Holmes’s “Fresh Fruit, Broken Bodies.”

In Fresh Fruit; Broken Bodies, the author, Seth Holmes, reveals the human suffering and injustice associated with the contemporary U.S. agricultural system. The themes that are heavily discussed within this writing includes healthcare discrimination, racism, global pressures versus individual choices, social hierarchy, immigration policy, and structural violence. Holmes’s main focus is the Triqui people, an indigenous Mexican community that has been engaging in newer and consistent transnational migration to the U.S. from Mexico. For this community, migration is necessary in order to fulfill basic livelihood necessities. Starting off, Holmes describes how he and multiple migrants cross the border from Mexico to Arizona, including his experience of getting detained and fined by the Border Patrol. During his detainment, Holmes was denied water and food for an extended period of time. Next, Holmes lived and worked among Triqui migrant workers at Tanaka Brothers Farm.

Upon arriving at Tanaka Brothers Farm, a family-owned farm in Washington, Holmes was met with a hierarchy that placed labor workers at the bottom. Although he noted that everyone on the farm is structurally vulnerable, the depth of vulnerability alters depending on where one stands within the labor structure. As berry pickers are typically migrant workers, they must pick enough to meet the weight requirements in order to not be fired, which would cause them to lose both their source of income and housing. Holmes discovered the physical pain and disrespect faced by the pickers. Through the stories of Abelino, Crescencio, and Bernardo, the U.S. healthcare system is shown to not help migrant workers, but instead frequently casted blame and suspicion on them for the injuries they sought help for. The cultural insensitivity and racism experienced by many migrants caused them to suffer within their bodies and within the larger society that they literally broke their backs for.

Delaware County Homeless Shelters Still Face Consequences of COVID: A look into the present state of several homeless shelters in Delaware County.

Community Action Agency of Delaware County’s three homeless shelters have reached capacity, causing officials to rely on a motel/hotel voucher system. On Feb. 2, the Delaware County Council passed a $350,000 raise to Community Action Agency of Delaware County for shelter operations, specifically to aid the motel/hotel voucher system until June 30. People experiencing homelessness that are placed in motels or hotels will also go through housing assistance programs until they can receive an alternate housing placement. 

Edward T. Coleman, the director of Community Action Agency of Delaware County, shared the ways that the COVID-19 pandemic has increased homelessness in the area. “For years and years, there’s always been a motel program, going back to when we started. Now, because of COVID, it’s been used a lot,” Coleman stated. Volunteers have hopes that the COVID will continue to be addressed, allowing the shelters to maintain capacity numbers. 

Gina Ruggieri, the director of the Life Center of Eastern Delaware County, has emphasized how the COVID-19 pandemic mitigation restrictions generated logistical difficulties at the shelter. The shelter decreased the amount of beds available to ensure that social distance could take place. Ruggieri explained that the shelter has decreased to 32 beds from an original full capacity of 50 beds. “It had been down to 30 about a month or two ago but Ruggieri said they added two more because they had an increase in women needing shelter,” Delco Times shared. 

The Life Center of Eastern Delaware formerly had a daily dinner program in which churches and community organizations brought and served dinner to the residents of the shelter and other people experiencing homelessness. However, since the COVID-19 pandemic, the daily dinner program had to cease since a lot of people were not comfortable serving on-site due to the rise of COVID-19 cases. Instead, groups provide meals on a drop-off basis. “It’s definitely been a constant change of protocol and procedure to keep everybody safe in a practical way. We’ve been doing everything that we possibly can to help,” Ruggieri stated. 

In addition to the housing and feeding of people experiencing homelessness, Delaware County shelters have been trying to increase their volunteer tax program. The volunteer tax program supplies free tax preparation services for county individuals, as well as the multiple locations amongst the county where these services are provided. Volunteers receive IRS training and certification through the agency and receive flexible hours with particular needs on weekdays, evenings, and weekends. 

Through the volunteer tax program, financial literacy is allotted as the counselor works alongside the client to find out the optimal way to use their refund with choices such as paying off bills, retiring, debt or investing. ““This is really a great opportunity for people to take advantage of free tax preparation and financial literacy. It’s provided free of charge for people whose incomes are limited. It’s a friendly place to go where we can talk about what needs they have,” Coleman explained.

For anyone interested in volunteering with Community Action Agency, they are asked to call 610-874-8451. 

Sources: Delco Times

Biden Administration Allocates $1.6B to Repair and Rebuild Pa. Bridges: Bridges in Chest County and Delaware County are expected to receive funding as a result of the Bridge Funding Program.

Standing besides the U.S. Transportation Secretary Pete Buttigieg, Pa. Gov. Tom Wolf publicized the start of the largest bridge formula initiative in American history. The Bipartisan Infrastructure Law promises that Pa. will receive $1.6 billion to repair and rebuild over 3,000 bridges throughout the commonwealth — including bridges in Chester County and Delaware County. In fiscal year 2022, Pa. will attain over $327 million dollars of government funding for bridge reparation. 

With 3,353 Pa. bridges in poor condition, Pa. is nationally ranked as the second state with the highest quantity of bridges in substandard condition. Gradual deterioration of Pa. bridges presents safety risks to community members and vehicles. With the impacts of climate change, leaders have advocated for the modernization of bridges to withstand a variety of weather conditions over a long period of time.The implementation of this initiative is expected to allow businesses to expand and communities to connect while prioritizing the safety of all people. “Every state has bridges in poor condition and in need of repair, including bridges with weight restrictions, that may force lengthy detours for travelers, school buses, first responders, or trucks carrying freight,” Deputy Federal Highway Administrator Stephanie Pollack explained.

On a national level, the Bridge Funding Program is expected to restore a total of roughly 15,000 bridges. This program has also been dedicated to provide funding for Tribal transportation facility bridges and “off-system” bridges. “Off-system” bridges include facilities that are locally owned and not a part of the federal-aid highway system. Although states usually match federal funding with a minimum of 20 percent state or local funding, the implementation of this law explains that federal funds can be utilized for 100 percent of the rehabilitation and reparation of these locally owned “off-system” bridges. 

 “Strong infrastructure is critical to the quality of life for all Pennsylvanians, especially strong, safe bridges,” Gov. Wolf stated. 

Sources: Chester County Press, Delaware Valley Journal