Zero Reports Does Not Equal Zero Rapes: Low statistics do not mean assault isn’t happening– just that it isn’t being reported.

The 2020 Annual Security Report for Eastern University boasts crime statistics for the past three years such as zero cases of rape, zero cases of dating violence, and only one non-penetrative sexual offense in the past three years.

Having spent three years at Eastern University as a woman, in community with other women on campus, I can confidently say these numbers are vastly underreported. In my time at Eastern, I have supported friends who were harassed, intimidated, and inappropriately touched by male students they now sit next to in class every day. I know students afraid to walk alone at night on campus, a student who had a knife pulled on them on the Sparrowk path, and several students victimized by sexual assault.

These stories remain unreported. But why?

There are a number of reasons why a student may choose not to report harassment and assault, such as fear and shame, but there are other factors that impact
underreporting as well.

Women are unwilling to report when they know from other women that the perpetrator was not held accountable for their actions. Why go through the pain of recounting, reliving, and retraumatizing when you know your pleas will be ignored?

Women are unable to report when they can be penalized for their reporting. Eastern University does not have an established amnesty policy for victimized students to encourage reporting and seeking help.

Women are unable to report when their experiences are confined to on-campus violence. Violence between two students, on or off campus, is violence against the
student body and should be treated as such.

Under-reporting is not a blameless phenomenon. Eastern’s nonexistent assault reports are not indicative of a lack of violence, they’re proof of a failure to address and support violence against the student body.

Among undergraduate students aged 18-24, 26.4% of women and 6.8% of men experience rape or sexual assault on campus. As a Christian institution we are not exempt from these statistics. Instead, Christian institutions are more susceptible to the silencing forces of purity culture and shame and must work twice as hard to protect students.

Eastern students do not need awareness of sexual violence. We are painfully aware. We need amnesty policies to facilitate reporting. We need support groups for the students affected by violence. We need all violence between two students to be penalized, not just incidents on campus. We need violent offenders to see consequences.

Further, if a football team is to be added to an already athletically saturated school, we need resources. We will need more CCAS staff, space, and funding. We will need more RA funding, better resources to offer students, and policies to support them.

Only then will reporting reflect the experiences of the student body. These policies are not just necessary to improve reporting, they are vital to students’ academic
success, mental health, and access to desperately needed resources. These policies save lives, and reflect a mission which Eastern boasts but has yet to actualize.

We must operate under the knowledge that students are experiencing violence. Eastern University must ask itself, why aren’t students reporting, and what can we
do to change that?

For the National Sexual Assault Support Hotline, call: 800.656.HOPE (4673)

Sources: Eastern University, RAINN

DEFENSE ATTORNEY IN THE TRIAL OF DEREK CHAUVIN IS AN EASTERN ALUMNI: Students buzz over the recent discovery that Defense Attorney Eric Nelson in the trial for the murder of George Floyd graduated from Eastern University.

Eastern University has a number of world-renowned alumni, revered for their impressive social justice work that we as students can proudly look to. However, there
is another side of Eastern’s alumnus repertoire, which includes some more sinister legacies. This semester has illuminated a number of Eastern graduates whose careers have included what students have called a divergence from the ideals of “Faith, Reason, and Justice” taught at Eastern University.

With the nation’s eyes watching the results of the trial of Derek Chauvin in the killing of George Floyd, many have begun to wonder who is the Defense Attorney for Derek Chauvin.

Defense Attorney Eric Nelson is a Minnesota native, and lives with his wife and three children in Minneapolis. He attended Eastern University in 1993, obtaining an undergraduate degree in history, and graduating cum laude in 1996. After obtaining his Juris Doctorate degree from the Mitchell Hamline School of Law in Minnesota, Nelson became a managing partner of the Halberg Criminal Defense firm.

In 2015, he joined the Minnesota Police and Peace Officers Association (MPPOA) Legal Defense Fund (LDF), representing a variety of cases. Now, in 2021, Nelson represented Derek Chauvin, the first white police officer found guilty of murdering a civilian in Minnesota, captured in a viral nine and a half minute video as the world watched the life seep out of George Floyd’s eyes. The police union funded Derek Chauvin’s defense, providing a dozen lawyers (including Eric Nelson) and over
one million dollars in support from the MPPOA legal fund.

This case caught international attention, as the outrage against George Floyd’s death swept across the nation, resulting in protests around the world. The tragedy of George Floyd’s death and the resulting guilty charge was only one painful reconciliation with the centuries long tradition of police brutality and militarization against Black Americans.

Students at Eastern University have been closely watching the case, and gathered via Zoom last Tuesday and Wednesday to pray for the verdict and reflect together.

However, when the student body and alumni network became aware that the Defense Attorney for Derek Chauvin was an Eastern University graduate, many became outraged. In analyzing Eric Nelson’s role in the case, there are mixed student reactions. Responses include the acknowledgement that every American is entitled to a “rigorous defense”, and the critique that Eastern University has a number of alumni who support white supremacy which the university has repeatedly failed to publicly denounce. By remaining silent on these issues, students feel the university is contributing to white supremacy and failing to uphold the standard of “Faith, Reason, and Justice”.

For the last week students have taken to Instagram and Twitter to urge the university to promptly respond to this issue. This discovery also triggered an ongoing discussion on racial justice at Eastern University, including students sharing their experiences of racism in Residence Life programs and the tokening of Bryan Stevenson to avoid a broader discussion on institutional reform.

Though the overall sentiment is that there are many students, professors, and staff dedicated to sustainable racial justice at Eastern, many feel the university itself still has a long way to go. Publicly acknowledging Eric Nelson’s defense of Derek Chauvin would be a small start.

Sources: USA Today, The Hill, The Sun, CNN, Eastern University, Instagram

Deprioritizing Rest: The impact of skipping Spring Break for an already vulnerable student population.

This semester has crawled by at a rate which leaves every day feeling like an eternity and every week like a split second. For whatever reason, this semester in COVID-19 is unlike the others. Perhaps it’s the anticipation of life returning to some semblance of normalcy, or the fatigue of our one-year anniversary looming in the background. Regardless of the cause, time is passing at an unreasonable pace.

Every student I’ve talked to has expressed some kind of exhaustion with this particular semester. This exhaustion has been characterized as present regardless of the amount of sleep, homework, or rest that has been done in a given day. Instead this weariness is a bone-deep one. A tire which could only be solved with a complete hard drive reset.

In semesters past, Spring Break has been a welcome pause in the crunch/crash cycle of classes, as well as a time to celebrate, spend time with family and friends, and sleep off midterms. This semester, however, peers I’ve spoken to haven’t talked of the fun they’d have if we had Spring Break this year, but of the necessity of rest which, now without, is feeling even more vital to the student body.

For students with disabilities and mental illness, this deprioritization of rest has taken an even greater toll. The result is not just an emotional one; the consequences affect grades, productivity, and ability to unwind when we do actually get a break. A normal semester is exhausting, but this one has proven to be a true test of strength. For students already struggling to get through the semester, this fifteen-week sprint has proven debilitating.

This kind of bone-deep weariness can’t be solved with one Wednesday, and the impact on students’ mental health will unfortunately not be healed in one sunny afternoon.

George Floyd Justice and Policing Act of 2020: Our democracy is not functioning as it should.

On May 25, 2020 George Floyd was murdered by a police officer charged with protecting and serving the city of Minneapolis, Minnesota. This killing was broadcasted by a bystander and the entire world caught its breath for eight minutes and forty-six seconds as the life seeped out of George Floyd’s eyes.

Almost a year later, the City of Minneapolis has agreed to pay $27 million to the family of George Floyd in a settlement. This settlement was decided on the fourth day of jury selection for the case against Derek Chauvin, accused of second degree murder for the death of George Floyd. There has been speculation on whether the jury has been too tainted with videos of the death, ongoing protests, and news of the settlement to make an unbiased decision. It is possible that these factors will result in a mistrial.

A third and final result of May 25 is culminating this month, as the George Floyd Justice in Policing Act of 2020 was passed by the democrat controlled House of Representatives and is being considered by the Senate. This bill aims to “hold law enforcement accountable for misconduct in court, improve transparency through data collection, and reform police training and policies.”

Nonetheless, the bill includes within it $750 million in funding for “Law Enforcement Grants” for police departments across the country. The bill stipulates that this funding should go toward law enforcement agencies investigating other law enforcement agencies for “the alleged use of deadly force”. Additionally, this bill requires only 5% of grant funding be put toward studying and implementing “effective management, training, recruiting, hiring, and oversight standards and programs to promote effective community and problem solving strategies for law enforcement agencies”.

In effect, this bill falls woefully short from the accountability demanded by Black Lives Matter protesters across the country this summer and now. Instead, this bill increases federal law enforcement funding with effectively no guidance as to how that funding should be spent.

This bill is a disgrace to the names of George Floyd and every Black American who has died at the hands of those who are charged with the duty to “protect and serve”.

Beyond the colossal insult, this series of events sends a loud and clear message as to what our leaders’ priorities are. Our elected officials have no interest in substantial or sustainable reform of the law enforcement and criminal justice system. In fact, over-policing and mass incarceration has functioned exactly as it was supposed to, and no majority of democrats or republicans will sway this special interest.

By awarding the Floyd family a gracious sum and passing a bill which increases law enforcement funding two messages have been made clear. First, the government is willing to publically appease the family of a victim of this oppressive system in order to reinforce systemic oppression. Second, the people’s voice does not matter.

Over the summer it is estimated 15 to 26 million people across the nation grabbed signs and sneakers to march for their, and their neighbors, right to life and liberty. For reference, the state of Pennsylvania holds 12.8 million residents. These protests were considered the largest in U.S. history. This estimate does not include the millions of people who, for health, safety, economic, and a slew of other reasons, could not join this fight but stood with the protesters nonetheless.

However, when it came to the elected representatives of these millions of people making into law the pleads of their constituents, they were met with devastating silence. There is something fundamentally wrong with a democracy which does not listen to the will of its people. There is something fundamentally wrong with a democracy which does not protect the life and liberty of its citizens.
Sources: Congress.gov, NY Times

Feminist Icon Audre Lorde: Remembering her life and legacy.

Audre Lorde (1934-1992) was a poet and academic who dedicated her life and work to confronting injustices of race, gender, and class. She was a self-described “Black lesbian feminist socialist mother of two, including one boy, and a member of an interracial couple”.

Lorde was raised in New York City by West Indian immigrant parents, and pursued a bachelor and master’s degree in Library Sciences. Lorde spent much of her life as a librarian in the New York public school system, before teaching as a poet-in-residence at Tougaloo College, a historically Black institution in Mississippi. From 1962 to 1970, Lorde was married a white, gay man with whom she had two children. It was not until 1972 that Lorde met the woman she would spend the final years of her life with.

The poet’s life was cut short when she died from cancer at the age of 58, but her poetry and academic contribution to intersectional feminist and critical race theory left behind a legacy which would long outlive her.

In reference to her work, Lorde said, “I have a duty. To speak the truth as I see it and to share not just my triumphs, not just the things that felt good, but the pain, the intense, often unmitigating pain.”

Her commitment to authentic feeling, in pursuit of freedom and in spite of pain, made her poetry raw and visceral; familiar to those whose lives have been marked by tragedy. Through this style, her poetry draws upon an ancient wisdom which expects recognition and demands reconciliation. Her poetry is not merely something to consume and discard, but rather, she emphasizes the relationship between feeling and language, language and action.

In her life and in her work Lorde dedicated herself to authenticity. Her literature has inspired countless women to pursue authenticity in themselves and she has continued to teach the relationships between feelings, language, and action well after her death. Reading her work, and thus continuing her legacy, is a worthwhile way to celebrate Women’s History Month.

Eastern’s Immigration Seminar: Everything students need to know about the changing immigration laws.

New administration always brings policy changes and legislative re-prioritization. The Biden Administration, however, has taken this responsibility head on by signing more than fifty executive orders in the two and a half months he has been in office. Though these orders have addressed a slew of social, political, and economic issues, immigration seems to be one of the administration’s key concerns.

To address these changes, Eastern University held a seminar on new immigration policy led by Mr. Jesse Ruhl, Esq. on February 25 for students to attend and learn more about the changing laws, as well as ask questions about their immigration status. Ruhl is an attorney who specializes in representing colleges and universities in connection with their international student programs.

The seminar began by enumerating the changes to immigration policy relevant to students, and explaining their impact. From January 20 to today, Biden has made a slew of orders relating to U.S. immigration policy. These orders include:

1. Revocation of the Trump Administration’s decision to exclude undocumented imigrants from the U.S. census.

2. Preservation of the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) imigration policy which affects “Dreamers”

3.Reversed the ‘travel ban’ targeting majority Muslim countries

4. Halted construction of the border wall

5. Ordered the end of “harsh and extreme immigration enforcement”

6. Began the restoration of the U.S. asylum system by ending the “remain in Mexico” program

7. Rebuilt the the U.S. refugee resettlement program

8. Revoked the Trump Administration’s attempt to suspend the entry of immigrants during the Coronavirus pandemic.

While all of these orders may not directly relate to student visa and immigration policies, they can have a great impact on family members, friends, and changing immigration procedures.

Ruhl also addressed the potential impact should Biden’s proposed US Citizen Act pass through Congress. This act aims to modernize and humanize the U.S. immigration system with this bill. Included within the act is the creation of a path to citizenship for undocumented immigrants, a mandate to keep families together, a prohibition on religion discrimination in immigration policy, promotion of immigration and refugee integration, streamlined work and education visas, and worker protection for those bound by work visas. The bill also authorizes increased budgeting to border security, revitalization of immigration courts, and aims to “start from the source” by addressing the root causes of migration.

After arming students with this information and a broader understanding of changing immigration policy, Ruhl spoke about how these changes directly impact students. The proposal for the US Citizenship Act aims to make it easier for STEM graduates to remain in the U.S. after the expiration of the student visa. This alteration would be limited and employer specific, but would potentially expand opportunities for international students at Eastern University.

Additionally, Ruhl discussed that there is no federal law prohibiting institutions of higher education from admitting students without documentation. Though in 2019 three states voted to disallow undocumented students, Pennsylvania has maintained that undocumented immigrants may study at university and obtain a valid degree.

The greatest impact of these policies on Eastern students is the immigration policies which affect students’ parents, siblings, extended family, and friends. By allowing more humanitarian and gracious policy procedures, the Biden Administration hopes to keep families together, address immigration at the root, and provide opportunity for citizenship for undocumented immigrants.

This seminar served to demystify the complex and rapid immigration policy changes which have been made in the last couple of months, as well as create space for international students to ask questions and share concerns. By bringing an experienced higher education and immigration attorney to speak at Eastern University, students were doubtless better equipped to understand their own place in this school, state, and nation.

Sources: CNN, Eastern University, The White House

Anti-Asian Hate Crimes Rise: Anti-Asian violence has risen across the nation, bringing with it discourse and protests against Anti-Asian racism.

On Friday, Feb. 19, Ying Ngov, the owner and operator of Mama Venezia’s Pizzeria in Norristown, was brutally beaten and her shop robbed. Ngov, a fifty-six year old immigrant from China, chased the group of men after they had stolen beers and ran from the store. Ngov grabbed a neighbor’s shovel to protect herself, but was beaten until she fell to the ground and lost consciousness.

Ngov is known by her community for being a kind and generous soul, and neighbors have come forward to testify that she has always accommodated those who cannot afford food. This incident, however, was not a robbing motivated by need. Ngov’s son-in-law and marine veteran, Brian Skipper, hopes this attack was not racially motivated, but worries for the safety of his family and community.

Since the violence, three teens have been identified as the assailants: twins Justin Cassidy and Kevin Cassidy of Aston, PA, along with Justin Croson of Seven Valleys, PA. All three have been detained by the police.

This attack is even more alarming in light of the recent murder of Christian Hall, a nineteen-year-old multiethnic Asian, by a Pennsylvania State Trooper on Dec. 30, 2020. The police were called to respond to reports of a suicidal teen on the edge of Route 33 southbound overpass in Monroe County, Pennsylvania. The State Troopers claim that Hall had a gun, presumably to commit suicide, and pointed the gun at the police officers before they shot and killed him.

However, video footage captured by bystanders shows Hall standing on the edge of the overpass with his hands empty and raised. Hall is then shot seven times by the officer and falls to the ground. The Pennsylvania State Trooper remains unnamed, but it has been confirmed that he was permitted to return to work.

The family of Christian Hall are understandably devastated by this loss and are working diligently to raise awareness and seek justice for their son. They have found support from the Asian Pacific Islander Political Alliance, which will be hosting a town hall to make space for the community and address the surge in anti-Asian violence in Pennsylvania and the nation. The family is represented by civil rights attorney Benjamin Crump, who has previously been representing George Floyd’s family.

Both of these events, in light of the national conversation on the rise in anti-Asian hate crimes, have put Pennsylvania in the national spotlight. The national discourse has resulted in a greater analysis of Pennsylvania law enforcement and local community cultures.

For Eastern University students these tragedies hit especially close to home, as with any violence in our community. The Waltonian urges students in need of mental health care and support to reach out to the Cushings Center for Counseling and Academic Support.

Sources: 6abc, Justice for Christian Hall, Asian Pacific Islander Political Alliance

Winter Wonderland: Students find creative ways to enjoy the snow this semester.

In the past two weeks the Greater Philadelphia Area has seen a lot of snow. Though snow days this semester look different from years past, Eastern students have still found a way to enjoy the wintry weather despite classes remaining online during numerous snowstorms.

Eastern University’s beautiful campus has become even more alluring covered in almost a foot of snow and students have found lots of ways to enjoy it. Walking through the campus you may notice footprints telling the tales of wintry fun past, and snow people melting, freezing, and melting again. Sledding tracks, salted paths, and snow angels all stand as hallowed reminders of the snow days celebrated this semester.

From snowball fights to ice fishing, Eastern students have found a number of creative ways to enjoy the weather. Some students have even been found sledding down the hill next to Kea-Guffin dormitories on plastic trash can lids!

Other students have enjoyed these snow days in a different way: snuggled up with a cozy blanket, hot chocolate, and a good book. Our dorm rooms have become a haven from the icy winds and frigid temperatures. Online classes have been a wonderful escape from walking across campus and bearing the cold.

Campus activities aren’t the only things for Eastern students to enjoy on snow days. Fennimore Park pond often freezes and provides a place for lovers of ice skating and ice hockey. This park is available to the public and within walking distance of Eastern University. There are also a number of parks in the area for students to enjoy hikes and walks with friends. Wissahickon Valley Park, Pennypack Park, and trails along the Schuylkill River can provide the beauty and calm students are looking for this winter. When hiking, make sure to wear appropriate footwear to avoid slipping and falling.

Though snow days look a little different this year, Eastern students have made it clear that they don’t intend to stop the frosty festivities for anything. Some professors have even been so kind as to make classes asynchronous during storms, to encourage exercise and play during these winter months.

Black Representation in Film MAAC Event: Understanding how the history of Black caricatures in film affects film and society today.

On Tuesday, Feb. 9, MAAC held a dinner and discussion featuring Eugene Haynes, a professor of Race and Ethnicity in Mass Media and Film at Temple University. This event was one of a monthly dinner and discussion held by the club throughout the spring semester. The topic of discussion for February was Black representation in film.

Starting with a video on the history of anti-Black stereotypes, the event discussed historic and present

Mental Floss | Hattie McDaniel’s role in “Gone with the Wind” has a complicated legacy. McDaniel was one the first successful Black women in film, but her role perpetuated racist stereotypes in film.

day caricatures of Black people, and its impact on social and political events. The video unpacked the three main groups of Black stereotypes (content servitude, unintelligence, and animalistic or hypersexuality) before delving into how these stereotypes have been manifested through gender roles.

For Black women, I learned, these three main stereotypes can be seen in the “Mammy” caricature, depicting a Black woman content with caring for their white master’s family and destined to suffer in silence, and the “Jezebel” or “Sapphire” caricature, which shows Black women as hyper-sexual. These stereotypes, though originating in the 1700s, are still around today with slight variations, such as the “angry Black woman” stereotype.

Additionally, showing Black women in film as hypersexual has contributed the to higher rates of sexual assault on Black women than their counterparts.

For Black men, these stereotypes are manifested as an “Uncle

The Oscar Buzz | Controversial film “The Help” featuring Octavia Spencer extends the “Mammy” caricature in film.

Tom,” “sambo,” or hyper-aggressive caricatures. These stereotypes feed into the racist belief that Black people are more aggressive and dangerous, and were used as a justification for the subjugation of an entire racial group. Today, these caricatures are manifested in higher rates of police brutality on Black men and can be attributed to both conscious prejudice and implicit bias over hundreds of years of stereotyping.

The video drew a clear connection between harmful stereotyping of Black people in film as violent, hyper-sexual, and unintelligent, and higher rates of police brutality, sexual assault, and workplace discrimination in the real world.

These stereotypes are often referenced by politicians who are “tough on crime,” through depicting Black majority communities as needing greater, more violent policing, and warning of the “welfare queen” to revoke social benefits from the Black community. Further, these stereotypes often contribute to inequality in the healthcare industry where Black people are assumed to have a lower pain tolerance.

This event made clear that representing Black people as one-dimensional in film has implications beyond the screen. These caricatures were carefully crafted to uphold slavery and portray Black people as unfit for society. Additionally, these stereotypes continue to be used today and have real impacts on our society.

COVID-19 Has Interrupted the Global Order: A comparative analysis of the various international responses to the Coronavirus pandemic.

The novel Coronavirus has affected the world in ways previously inconceivable. Countries historically equipped to manage catastrophes have struggled to contain the virus, while poorer countries have succeeded beyond expectation. The previously impenetrable global order has been, in many ways, all but reversed. With a vaccine developed and some semblance of normalcy in reach, the world is left with one question: Why has COVID-19 managed to operate seemingly oblivious to the global order?

As of January 2021, New Zealand, Vietnam, Rwanda, and Taiwan have been hailed as some of the most successful nations in addressing the spread of COVID-19. Meanwhile, world powers such as the United States, United Kingdom, France, Germany, and Italy join Israel, Brazil, and Argentina in an inability to successfully contain the pandemic. The bulk of countries, including India, Singapore, Ireland, China, and Bangladesh, fall somewhere in between.

This unprecedented reordering of global society has been attributed to a number of factors. It is likely that population, geography, preparation, and politics have all contributed to containment and fatality rates. In all of this, however, one thing has become clear: economic power had little to no effect on ability to address the virus.

Unsurprisingly, geography has been particularly impactful on ability to avert the Coronavirus. Due to their inherently remote nature, island nations have had a unique advantage in addressing the pandemic. Samoa, Micronesia, Laos, and the Solomon Islands have all had few cases, and even fewer deaths. New Zealand has been hailed as most successful in containing the virus, likely in part due to its ability to completely shut down international trade and travel seamlessly.

Population has also had an impressive impact on a country’s success in COVID rates and mortality. African countries have had unexpected success during the pandemic, likely in part due to their young population. The continent has a median age of 19.7, compared to Europe’s median age of 42.6. In a pandemic which disproportionately affects the elderly, this has an unimaginable impact on mortality rates. Further, countries which are frequently affected by diseases such as malaria, measles, and water-bourne parasites boast a population with immune systems more equipped to ward off infection.

Regardless of geographic and population advantages, preparedness and previous epidemic experience presides over these conditions. Nations accustomed to protecting its citizens from epidemics had better programs in place to address COVID-19. Nigeria, for example, began testing and checking temperatures at the border upon discovery of the virus, likely due to their learned experiences with Ebola. Strict lockdowns were implemented rapidly, in some instances well before the first cases were reported in the nation. Asian countries were already accustomed to wearing face masks, even integrating face masks into culture and fashion well before COVID-19. When the novel Coronavirus was discovered, Taiwan, Japan, and Singapore were well prepared to take the necessary precautions.

Despite all of this, the greatest indicator of a countries’ capacity to contain the virus appears to be political culture. Countries which emphasize civil liberty and privacy, such as the UK, US, Canada, and Germany did not utilize as many resources in contact tracing. Further, they were met with opposition when proposing mask and social distancing policies. Meanwhile, Japan and South Korea immediately began using CCTV cams, GPS data, and credit card tracking to trace and isolate infections rapidly. They then provided families with the necessary food, medical supplies, and infrastructure to immediately begin quarantine. Their success is particularly impressive when taking populational density into account.

Leadership, a facet of political culture, has also revealed itself as a huge factor in containment efforts. National leaders that did not display a unified position were unsuccessful in building trust and unity with their population. Countries with leaders that downplayed the virus were most negatively affected by COVID-19. India’s Prime Minister relayed that yoga could build immunity against COVID, Vladimir Putin declared victory over the virus followed by a massive parade, Brazil’s President Bolsonaro refused to wear a mask before being court-mandated, and President Trump repeatedly mocked the virus and questioned its legitimacy. These four countries have the highest rates of infection per million people.

Of all of these factors; geography, population, preparation, and political culture, economic conditions seem to have no effect on successful containment of COVID-19. Instead, Coronavirus has become the “great equalizer” in international politics. For the first time in modern history a catastrophe has interrupted the global order of development and underdevelopment. The question now is whether economics was ever the appropriate measure of success to begin with.

Sources: Lowy Institute, DW, NECSI